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Owing to this difference in the manner of guiding and supporting the cutting edges, and the advantages of an axial support for tools in boring, it becomes an operation by which the most accurate dimensions are attainable, while drilling is a comparatively imperfect operation; yet the ordinary conditions of machine fitting are such that nearly all small holes can be drilled with sufficient accuracy.!
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Inherent or cooling strains in castings is much more intricate than shrinkage: it is, in fact, one of the most uncertain and obscure matters that pattern-makers and moulders have to contend with. Inherent strains may weaken castings, or cause them to break while cooling, or sometimes even after they are finished; and in many kinds of works such strains must be carefully guarded against, both in the preparation of designs and the arrangement of patterns, especially for wheels and pulleys with spokes, and for struts or braces with both ends fixed. The main difficulty resulting from cooling strains, however, is that of castings being warped and sprung; this difficulty is continually present in the foundry and machine-shop, and there is perhaps no problem in the whole range of mechanical manipulation of which there exists more diversity of opinion and practice than of means to prevent the springing of castings. This being the case, an apprentice can hardly hope for much information here. There is no doubt of springing and strains in castings being the result of constant causes that might be fully understood if it were not for the ever-changing conditions which exist in casting, both as to the form of pieces, the temperature and quality of metal, mode of cooling, and so on..

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(1.) Why are machine frames constructed in sections, instead of being in one piece?鈥(2.) Why must parts which have contact on opposite sides have specific dimensions?鈥(3.) What are standards of measure based upon in England, America, and France?鈥(4.) How can weight be measured by time?鈥(5.) Has the French metre proved a standard admitting of test reference?
In the case of tools composed partly of iron and partly of steel, steel laid as it is called, the tendency to crack in hardening may be avoided in most cases by hammering the steel edge at a low temperature until it is so expanded that when cooled in hardening it will only contract to a state of rest and correspond to the iron part; the same result may be produced by curving a piece, giving convexity to the steel side before hardening.
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21 August, 2019 - 13:08
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